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Backflow occurs when water flow is reversed from its intended direction and, by way of a cross connection, is pushed or siphoned back into the drinking water system. Backflow can occur by the following mechanisms:
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If a cross connection exists and backflow occurs, contaminants can be drawn back through pipes and into the drinking water system. This has the potential to pollute drinking water and create a potential health hazard. Examples:
The easiest way to avoid backflow is to eliminate cross connections between the drinking water system and contaminants. Sometimes cross connections cannot be avoided. In these cases, the installation of a backflow prevention device will stop backflow. Examples:
A backflow prevention assembly is a mechanical valve arrangement, which prevents the reversal of water flow, once it has passed through the valve. There are different types of backflow prevention assemblies for different situations and different degrees of hazard.
Anytime a connection to the water system is made, the City's Backflow Prevention Division should be contacted to determine backflow prevention requirements. The Backflow Prevention Division is open Monday through Friday, between the hours of 6:30 a.m. and 3 p.m. They can also be reached by calling 254-501-6500, ext. 4. A backflow prevention assembly may be required if you have a:
The City of Killeen requires all underground lawn sprinkler / irrigation systems to have either a pressure vacuum breaker (PVB) or a reduced pressure zone assembly (RPZ) on all new installations. If there is an old double check in place, it is acceptable as long as it passes the test, once if fails or needs repair, it must be replaced with a PVB-where applicable or an RPZ. City code prohibits any type of cross connection which could endanger the water system.
A Certified Backflow Assembly Tester is someone who has completed a state-approved, 40-hour training course in backflow prevention assembly testing and has passed a proficiency test to prove his/her knowledge. Many plumbing, fire sprinkler, and lawn irrigation companies, as well as backflow prevention testing companies, are listed in local telephone directories and provide testing services in the Killeen area. Water Customers can contact Backflow Solutions, Inc (BSI) for a list of companies offering the services of Certified Backflow Assembly Testers at:
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Backflow prevention assembly testing is done by private companies who set their own rates. Testing costs vary, so getting quotes from several companies is recommended.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, TCEQ, mandates the City of Killeen establish and maintain a cross connection control program. The City of Killeen Ordinance states the City will terminate water service should a property owner fail to comply with cross connection/backflow regulations. This includes testing and maintenance of backflow prevention assemblies.
Yes, a plumbing permit is required to install a backflow prevention assembly. Permits can be obtained Monday through Friday, between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. through the City's Permit Department at:
100 E Avenue CKilleen, TX 76541
For permit fee information, contact the Permits Department at 254-501-7762.
The property owner, a licensed plumber, or a landscape contractor licensed to install backflow prevention devices. A plumbing permit is required.
Backflow prevention assembly installation is done by private companies who set their own rates. Installation costs vary, so getting quotes from several companies is recommended.
Backflow prevention assemblies have internal seals, springs, and moving parts that wear out. Regular testing is required to ensure backflow prevention assemblies are functioning properly and have not been bypassed. A visual check of air gap assemblies is sufficient, while mechanical assemblies must be tested with special equipment.
All backflow prevention assemblies must be tested at least annually and immediately following any repair, maintenance, or relocation. Assemblies that repeatedly fail may require more frequent testing or replacement.
It is the responsibility of the property owner to ensure the assembly is in good operating condition. A person who is state certified in backflow assembly testing must perform the test and submit the results to Backflow Solutions, Inc (BSI). If any repair work or maintenance is performed, the assembly must be retested immediately. All test results must be submitted to Backflow Solutions, Inc (BSI). The Certified Tester should mail, email, or submit online the original test results to Backflow Solutions, Inc (BSI):
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